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This page lists key facts about the threat that nuclear weapons pose to humanity and what scientific and geopolitical factors play into that threat. If you have any comments, questions, or suggestions, please forward them to

A member of Exonians for Nuclear Disarmament describes their project illustrating the global impacts of nuclear famine.

A high school student at Exonians for Nuclear Disarmament explains an interactive nuclear famine model in October 2023.

The 9 Nuclear Weapon States

Who has the Nukes?

According to an early 2024 study from the Federation of  American Scientists, the following nations are known to possess nuclear weapons:

  • Russia

  • United States

  • China

  • France

  • United Kingdom

  • Pakistan

  • India

  • Israel

  • North Korea

See the figure for the estimates by the FAS of how many warheads make up each arsenal. Multiple countries on this list are actively involved in armed conflict as of March 2024. Learn more here.

An image of H.Res 77, a bill urging the leaders of the the U.S. government to pursue nuclear disarmament.

H.Res. 77: The Bill to Ban the Bomb

H.Res. 77 was introduced by Rep. Jim McGovern of Massachusetts in the U.S. House of Representatives on January 31st, 2023, during the 118th Congress. The bill calls upon the President of the United States, the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, and all other federal leaders of America to lead a worldwide, multilateral effort to rid the world of nuclear weapons by embracing the goals and provisions of the Treaty on the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons and pursue a new bilateral nuclear arms control and disarmament framework by the year 2026, renounce the first use of nuclear weapons, end the sole authority of the President to launch nuclear weapons, remove American nuclear weapons from "hair-trigger alert," and cancel plans to enhance and modernize the American nuclear arsenal. As of February 1st, 2024, the resolution has 42 co-sponsors. Read the full text of the bill here

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